Why study life sciences?

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The world of life is magnificent and colorful, and the phenomenon of life is fascinating!

Our ancestors were ancient apes who lived in the forest. Where did the ancient apes come from? Many people are curious about such questions.

Speaking of ourselves, a newborn baby is a piece of meat that falls off the mother’s body. This piece of meat was originally a "little dot" that was hard to see with the naked eye in the mother’s body. The real name of this little dot is "fertilized egg".

The fertilized egg grows day and night in the mother’s belly, and finally leaves the mother’s body to live independently. The days of the fertilized egg in the mother’s belly are really changing and wonderful.

A fertilized egg multiplies to trillions of cells in less than a year. Among the trillions of cells derived from the same fertilized egg, there are various kinds of cells, such as skin cells, nerve cells, white blood cells, etc., which are about no less than 200 kinds of cells.

How can a fertilized egg multiply to trillions of cells, and how can there be various kinds of cells with different shapes, sizes, and functions among these trillions of cells? Do you want to know the mystery?

Sperm gather around the egg, and when the first sperm breaks through the zona pellucida and combines with the egg, the fertilized egg is about to form. The fertilized egg can become a person, so it is not an exaggeration to call the fertilized egg a "totipotent cell".

Then can the various cells derived from the fertilized egg, such as skin cells, muscle cells, etc., become "totipotent cells" like "fertilized eggs"? If skin cells, muscle cells, etc. can become "totipotent cells" like "fertilized eggs", then if someone has a problem with an organ, such as kidney, heart, lung, etc., they can use skin, muscle, etc.

Cells to create a normal kidney, heart, lung. Use the reconstructed normal organs to replace the problematic organs, and people who are dying can live and work healthily again. This is such a tempting topic!

The answer to this question was given by British biologist Gurdon and Japanese scholar Yamanaka Shinya, who won the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Gurdon created a precedent in animal reproduction history in 1962 by using a nucleus from an African clawed frog intestine to replace the nucleus of a frog egg and develop into a lively frog.

While Yamanaka Shinya put several genes into mouse skin cells and induced them into pluripotent stem cells that can develop into various tissues, called iPS cells.

Chinese scientists used mouse iPS cells to create mice with reproductive ability called "Little Little", confirming that iPS cells are totipotent cells. The birth of "Little Little" and its brothers shows that the myth of Sun Wukong plucking hair and turning into monkeys has become a reality. The life science that makes myths come true is so magical!

For quite a long time, humans have been advancing hand in hand with nature and enjoying the pleasure bestowed by nature’s infinite resources.

However, when science and technology developed rapidly and humans found that the tools they mastered were becoming more and more powerful, humans who originally respected nature began to try to transform nature and dominate nature.

A series of crises also followed: food, energy, environment and health crises followed one after another. This series of crises awakened humans who once thought they were the spirits of all things and masters of nature.

They finally realized that in nature, various living things are in an invisible net. People and other living things, living things and living things, living things and environment are interdependent and interdependent. Humans are not the masters and conquerors of nature, but only managers of nature. This is the conclusion of life science.

Sorghum and beet will turn into wine, wine will turn into vinegar, and vinegar will lose its sour taste. Do you know why? Plague will sweep the world like a black demon and take away tens of thousands of lives.

Why is this? Life science tells us that sorghum and beet turn into wine is a gift from a kind of tiny life that is hard to see with the naked eye to humans, while plague is another kind of little devil doing evil. How to treat those little lives that dedicate themselves silently to humans, how to eliminate these little devils are all life topics that we need to study carefully.

Black cows give birth to white calves, red flowers’ peas still bloom red flowers in their offspring. This is the phenomenon of biological variation and inheritance.

Since Mendel revealed the laws of biological variation and inheritance, the phenomena of variation and inheritance have been inseparable from "genes". We study the laws of biological variation and inheritance, and study the genes of living organisms. It is the need for food and clothing, and also the need for health and longevity.

Genes are composed of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules. Since the structure of DNA was revealed, the development of life science has advanced by leaps and bounds.

Therefore, natural scientists from different fields have unanimously predicted that the 21st century is the century of life science. Since the 20th century, due to the participation of natural scientists from fields such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, etc. in life science research, breakthroughs have been made in many fields such as gene diagnosis, gene therapy, gene chip, epigenetics, etc. Genetic engineering also emerged as the times require.

Now there are many drugs produced by genetic engineering that have been used clinically and have achieved good results. At present, although there are different opinions in the fields of transgenic animals, transgenic plants, transgenic foods, etc., "transgenic" is after all the inevitable development of science.

Science itself is a double-edged sword. Humans will never throw away the sword because it can be used to kill people. They should take advantage of it and abandon its harm.

On June 26, 2000, 16 centers from countries such as the United States, Britain, Japan, France, Germany, China, etc. jointly announced that the "working framework" of the human genome has been drawn.

This marks another milestone achievement in the history of life science. For this reason, Clinton, the then owner of the White House, said that this was a "day that will last forever".

Just as scientists all over the world were rejoicing and excited about the completion of the human genome "working framework", new problems appeared.

For example: It was originally thought that there should be at least 100,000 genes in the human genome, because there are at least more than 100,000 proteins in the human body.

However, there are less than 30,000 genes that have been confirmed in the human genome; there are about 3 billion base pairs (deoxyribonucleic acid pairs) in the DNA of the human genome.

However, only 3% to 5% of the DNA sequence in the human genome is related to protein structure. There is a considerable part of repeated sequences in the DNA sequence of the genome.

People look forward to one day being able to explore all the laws of life. The drawing of the human genome "working framework" is only the first step in a long march. The post-genome era will give scientists a more difficult and glorious mission. The research of life science is still a long way to go!

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